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A Soldier Recalls the Trail of Tears

A soldier recalls the Trail of Tears
Birthday Story of Private John G. Burnett, Captain Abraham McClellan’s Company, 2nd Regiment, 2nd Brigade, Mounted Infantry, Cherokee Indian Removal, 1838–39.

Children:
This is my birthday, December 11, 1890, I am eighty years old today. I was born at Kings Iron Works in Sulllivan County, Tennessee, December the 11th, 1810. I grew into manhood fishing in Beaver Creek and roaming through the forest hunting the deer and the wild boar and the timber wolf. Often spending weeks at a time in the solitary wilderness with no companions but my rifle, hunting knife, and a small hatchet that I carried in my belt in all of my wilderness wanderings.

On these long hunting trips I met and became acquainted with many of the Cherokee Indians, hunting with them by day and sleeping around their camp fires by night. I learned to speak their language, and they taught me the arts of trailing and building traps and snares. On one of my long hunts in the fall of 1829, I found a young Cherokee who had been shot by a roving band of hunters and who had eluded his pursuers and concealed himself under a shelving rock. Weak from loss of blood, the poor creature was unable to walk and almost famished for water. I carried him to a spring, bathed and bandaged the bullet wound, and built a shelter out of bark peeled from a dead chestnut tree. I nursed and protected him feeding him on chestnuts and toasted deer meat. When he was able to travel I accompanied him to the home of his people and remained so long that I was given up for lost. By this time I had become an expert rifleman and fairly good archer and a good trapper and spent most of my time in the forest in quest of game.

The removal of Cherokee Indians from their life long homes in the year of 1838 found me a young man in the prime of life and a Private soldier in the American Army. Being acquainted with many of the Indians and able to fluently speak their language, I was sent as interpreter into the Smoky Mountain Country in May, 1838, and witnessed the execution of the most brutal order in the History of American Warfare. I saw the helpless Cherokees arrested and dragged from their homes, and driven at the bayonet point into the stockades. And in the chill of a drizzling rain on an October morning I saw them loaded like cattle or sheep into six hundred and forty-five wagons and started toward the west.

One can never forget the sadness and solemnity of that morning. Chief John Ross led in prayer and when the bugle sounded and the wagons started rolling many of the children rose to their feet and waved their little hands good-by to their mountain homes, knowing they were leaving them forever. Many of these helpless people did not have blankets and many of them had been driven from home barefooted.

On the morning of November the 17th we encountered a terrific sleet and snow storm with freezing temperatures and from that day until we reached the end of the fateful journey on March the 26th, 1839, the sufferings of the Cherokees were awful. The trail of the exiles was a trail of death. They had to sleep in the wagons and on the ground without fire. And I have known as many as twenty-two of them to die in one night of pneumonia due to ill treatment, cold, and exposure. Among this number was the beautiful Christian wife of Chief John Ross. This noble hearted woman died a martyr to childhood, giving her only blanket for the protection of a sick child. She rode thinly clad through a blinding sleet and snow storm, developed pneumonia and died in the still hours of a bleak winter night, with her head resting on Lieutenant Greggs saddle blanket.

I made the long journey to the west with the Cherokees and did all that a Private soldier could do to alleviate their sufferings. When on guard duty at night I have many times walked my beat in my blouse in order that some sick child might have the warmth of my overcoat. I was on guard duty the night Mrs. Ross died. When relieved at midnight I did not retire, but remained around the wagon out of sympathy for Chief Ross, and at daylight was detailed by Captain McClellan to assist in the burial like the other unfortunates who died on the way. Her unconfined body was buried in a shallow grave by the roadside far from her native home, and the sorrowing Cavalcade moved on.

Being a young man, I mingled freely with the young women and girls. I have spent many pleasant hours with them when I was supposed to be under my blanket, and they have many times sung their mountain songs for me, this being all that they could do to repay my kindness. And with all my association with Indian girls from October 1829 to March 26th 1839, I did not meet one who was a moral prostitute. They are kind and tender hearted and many of them are beautiful.

The only trouble that I had with anybody on the entire journey to the west was a brutal teamster by the name of Ben McDonal, who was using his whip on an old feeble Cherokee to hasten him into the wagon. The sight of that old and nearly blind creature quivering under the lashes of a bull whip was too much for me. I attempted to stop McDonal and it ended in a personal encounter. He lashed me across the face, the wire tip on his whip cutting a bad gash in my cheek. The little hatchet that I had carried in my hunting days was in my belt and McDonal was carried unconscious from the scene.

I was placed under guard but Ensign Henry Bullock and Private Elkanah Millard had both witnessed the encounter. They gave Captain McClellan the facts and I was never brought to trial. Years later I met 2nd Lieutenant Riley and Ensign Bullock at Bristol at John Roberson’s show, and Bullock jokingly reminded me that there was a case still pending against me before a court martial and wanted to know how much longer I was going to have the trial put off?
McDonal finally recovered, and in the year 1851, was running a boat out of Memphis, Tennessee.

The long painful journey to the west ended March 26th, 1839, with four-thousand silent graves reaching from the foothills of the Smoky Mountains to what is known as Indian territory in the West. And covetousness on the part of the white race was the cause of all that the Cherokees had to suffer. Ever since Ferdinand DeSoto made his journey through the Indian country in the year 1540, there had been a tradition of a rich gold mine somewhere in the Smoky Mountain Country, and I think the tradition was true. At a festival at Echota on Christmas night 1829, I danced and played with Indian girls who were wearing ornaments around their neck that looked like gold.

In the year 1828, a little Indian boy living on Ward creek had sold a gold nugget to a white trader, and that nugget sealed the doom of the Cherokees. In a short time the country was overrun with armed brigands claiming to be government agents, who paid no attention to the rights of the Indians who were the legal possessors of the country. Crimes were committed that were a disgrace to civilization. Men were shot in cold blood, lands were confiscated. Homes were burned and the inhabitants driven out by the gold-hungry brigands.
Chief Junaluska was personally acquainted with President Andrew Jackson. Junaluska had taken 500 of the flower of his Cherokee scouts and helped Jackson to win the battle of the Horse Shoe, leaving 33 of them dead on the field. And in that battle Junaluska had drove his tomahawk through the skull of a Creek warrior, when the Creek had Jackson at his mercy.
Chief John Ross sent Junaluska as an envoy to plead with President Jackson for protection for his people, but Jackson’s manner was cold and indifferent toward the rugged son of the forest who had saved his life. He met Junaluska, heard his plea but curtly said, “Sir, your audience is ended. There is nothing I can do for you.” The doom of the Cherokee was sealed. Washington, D.C., had decreed that they must be driven West and their lands given to the white man, and in May 1838, an army of 4000 regulars, and 3000 volunteer soldiers under command of General Winfield Scott, marched into the Indian country and wrote the blackest chapter on the pages of American history.

Men working in the fields were arrested and driven to the stockades. Women were dragged from their homes by soldiers whose language they could not understand. Children were often separated from their parents and driven into the stockades with the sky for a blanket and the earth for a pillow. And often the old and infirm were prodded with bayonets to hasten them to the stockades.

In one home death had come during the night. A little sad-faced child had died and was lying on a bear skin couch and some women were preparing the little body for burial. All were arrested and driven out leaving the child in the cabin. I don’t know who buried the body.
In another home was a frail mother, apparently a widow and three small children, one just a baby. When told that she must go, the mother gathered the children at her feet, prayed a humble prayer in her native tongue, patted the old family dog on the head, told the faithful creature good-by, with a baby strapped on her back and leading a child with each hand started on her exile. But the task was too great for that frail mother. A stroke of heart failure relieved her sufferings. She sunk and died with her baby on her back, and her other two children clinging to her hands.

Chief Junaluska who had saved President Jackson’s life at the battle of Horse Shoe witnessed this scene, the tears gushing down his cheeks and lifting his cap he turned his face toward the heavens and said, “Oh my God, if I had known at the battle of the Horse Shoe what I know now, American history would have been differently written.”

At this time, 1890, we are too near the removal of the Cherokees for our young people to fully understand the enormity of the crime that was committed against a helpless race. Truth is, the facts are being concealed from the young people of today. School children of today do not know that we are living on lands that were taken from a helpless race at the bayonet point to satisfy the white man’s greed.

Future generations will read and condemn the act and I do hope posterity will remember that private soldiers like myself, and like the four Cherokees who were forced by General Scott to shoot an Indian Chief and his children, had to execute the orders of our superiors. We had no choice in the matter.

Twenty-five years after the removal it was my privilege to meet a large company of the Cherokees in uniform of the Confederate Army under command of Colonel Thomas. They were encamped at Zollicoffer and I went to see them. Most of them were just boys at the time of the removal but they instantly recognized me as “the soldier that was good to us.” Being able to talk to them in their native language I had an enjoyable day with them. From them I learned that Chief John Ross was still ruler in the nation in 1863. And I wonder if he is still living? He was a noble-hearted fellow and suffered a lot for his race.
At one time, he was arrested and thrown into a dirty jail in an effort to break his spirit, but he remained true to his people and led them in prayer when they started on their exile. And his Christian wife sacrificed her life for a little girl who had pneumonia. The Anglo-Saxon race would build a towering monument to perpetuate her noble act in giving her only blanket for comfort of a sick child. Incidentally the child recovered, but Mrs. Ross is sleeping in a unmarked grave far from her native Smoky Mountain home.

When Scott invaded the Indian country some of the Cherokees fled to caves and dens in the mountains and were never captured and they are there today. I have long intended going there and trying to find them but I have put off going from year to year and now I am too feeble to ride that far. The fleeing years have come and gone and old age has overtaken me. I can truthfully say that neither my rifle nor my knife were stained with Cherokee blood.
I can truthfully say that I did my best for them when they certainly did need a friend. Twenty-five years after the removal I still lived in their memory as “the soldier that was good to us”. However, murder is murder whether committed by the villain skulking in the dark or by uniformed men stepping to the strains of martial music.

Murder is murder, and somebody must answer. Somebody must explain the streams of blood that flowed in the Indian country in the summer of 1838. Somebody must explain the 4000 silent graves that mark the trail of the Cherokees to their exile. I wish I could forget it all, but the picture of 645 wagons lumbering over the frozen ground with their cargo of suffering humanity still lingers in my memory.
Let the historian of a future day tell the sad story with its sighs, its tears and dying groans. Let the great Judge of all the earth weigh our actions and reward us according to our work.
Children — Thus ends my promised birthday story. This December the 11th 1890.

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16 Comments

  1. Michael Griggs

    Michael Griggs
    Ms. Keelbe
    3/13/13; Per. 5
    AP. English 11

    In the essay “A Soldier Recalls a Trail of Tears”, John G. Brunett has composed his thoughts and feelings in to what he has witnessed in the ouster of the Cherokees from their own lands. This was absolutely devastating for Brunett, as he was a private soldier who had to partake in the removal of the Cherokees. Brunett had grown up with them and has then had to face a personal challenge for him to overcome. In the removal, the Cherokees had to walk the “Trail of Tears” in which they were forced to walk miles to another land. Having witnessed countless executions of the Cherokees, John G. Brunett now recollects his moments of sadness through his extraneous and excellently written memoir.

  2. Phuong-My N.

    Phuong-My Nguyen
    Keeble
    AP English, Per. 2
    21 February 2013

    In John G. Burnett’s recollection, “A Soldier Recalls the Trial of Tears” (1890), he vividly describes the events he witnessed during the removal of the Cherokee Indians from their land. Burnett basically grew up with the Cherokees and in 1838, he had no idea that he would have to assist escorting the Cherokees out. He, as a private soldier, was only asked to be an interpreter in the Smoky Mountain County. On his journey, he witnessed executions, death, suffering, and the sad faces of the Cherokee children. Burnett did all he could to help the Cherokees; he talked to the children, gave them his overcoat during the night time, and even defended an old Cherokee man being whipped by a soldier. The sympathetic anecdotes he told during his story helped me feel what he felt during that time and led to me making connections to other historic events similar to this. The Trial of Tears is something that will haunt Burnett for the rest of his life.

  3. Areli S

    Areli S.
    Ms. Keeble
    AP English 11, 2nd period
    February 20,2013

    In John G. Burnett’s account,”A Soldier Recalls the Trail of Lies”, the reader gains a first account of a daunt and undisclosed truth of degrading treatment and murder. Burnett’s recall of the event was well assembled, and he was able to press emotion through diction that I was able to grasp. I think Burnett must feel an overwhelming hurt, because although he didnt exactly experience the same treatment he did watched it first hand, he did stand alongside the hurt families, the dying folk, he saw it and these were people he created relationships with. Burnett well could have developed trauma from this event. This account not only serves as an important reminder of the pain that came from the Trail of Lies and for those reading to keep the truth alive, but as well to show the struggle of a man trying to do the moral thing, while a whole body of people find it justifiable to murder INNOCENT PEOPLE TO SUPPLY THEIR GREED!

  4. DaJohn Wade

    In the story “”A Soldier Recalls the Trail of Tears”, Private Burnett reflects on the gruesome memories he has about the journey he went through. He reminisces on the bonds he built with the Indians before he describes the tragic uprooting they went through from their home. While trying to stand up for his fellow companions, Burnett had to endure the role of supporting or tolerating the U.S’s decisions on moving the Cherokee to new land. Women, men, and children dying, excruciating weather climates, and the redundant footsteps day in and day out walking West are a few aspects of Burnett’s life during this period.

  5. Elvia Lopez

    Elvia Lopez
    AP English
    Ms. Keeble
    February 20, 2013

    In the story, “A Soldier Recalls the Trail of Tears” by John G. Burnett, he relieves his own experience during the Removal of the Cherokee Nation. He informs the audience about his struggle and the challenges he had to overcome. He faced many deaths, mental and emotional pain, and loss of stability such as sleeping outside, in wagons, and sufferin from the cold. Although he helped Natives in many ways,he lived his life in a very traumatic way. The pain he challenged will never go away. The audience is captivated by the emotional appeal that the writer is pursuing. John G. Burnett is an independent, courageous and strong man that will always make an impact in peoples lives.

  6. Alexis l.

    Alexis l.
    Ms. Keeble
    AP English 11
    2/20/13
    In John G. Burnett’s story,” A Soldier Recalls the Trail of Tears”, he depicts his life during the Trail of Tears. He watches in shame as the Native Americans have to endure pain during this event, and it was all during his own birthday. Only sadness and misery was seen that day, and Burnett wasn’t able to confront the U.S. government or else his punishment would prevent him from helping the natives. The mental scars that Burnett now has are ones that no one could ever imagine.

  7. Raymond P

    Raymond P
    Ms. Keeble
    AP English 11
    20 February 2013

    In “A Soldier Recalls the Trail of Tears,” by John G. Burnett reveals tremendous experiences and the removal of Cherokee. Burnett grew up with the Cherokee having a great respect for them and having them suffering must have been terrible. Having to work with the Army so young probably was eating him up inside, he never hurt any Cherokee. He did anything to help the Natives when they were moved and suffering; there was only one of him and tons of Natives, he could not have done everything. The pain he went through is inexplicable, knowing that he was one of the good ones shows that some people did try and help the Natives.

  8. Brenda C.

    Brenda C
    Ms. Keeble
    AP English, Per 5.
    19 February 2013

    In the story “A Soldier Recalls the Trail of Tears” by John G. Burnett, he talks about his heartbreaking experiences at his young age. He saw people die, go through violent acts, and also the removal of the Cherokee homes. The bad memories he experienced and everything he saw that was happening to the Cherokees probably made him feel tremendously bad, but at the same time he did everything he could to help them out. Burnett’s story makes me feel a bit sad because of all the pain and sad moments the Cherokees had to tolerate.

  9. David D.

    David Delgado
    Ms. Keeble
    Period 2
    AP English
    19 February 2013
    In the story “A Soldier Recalls the Trail of Tears” by John G. Burnett is about him talking about his personal experiences of the removal of the Cherokee nation. By the way he told the story I could tell that he was haunted by theses memories but isn’t afraid to share his stories with other people. He was such a close friend to the Cherokee people it must have been hard for him to see them being kicked out of there homes, dying, and being abused. Burnett knew though that there was nothing he could do to help them much. He did what he could and some of the Cherokee people knew him as “ The soldier that was good to us.”

  10. Desiree N.

    Desiree N.

    Ms. Keeble

    AP English Per.5

    Feb. 19, 2013

    In John G. Burnett’s story, “A Soldier Recalls the Trail of Tears,” he relives his experiences and observations of the removal of the Cherokee nation. Burnett is very haunted by his memories but he will never forget them and chooses to share them with people. I can’t imagine the trauma that event left him with. Burnett talks about the memories of good people dying and the unnecessary violence that was used to force these gentle people out of their homes. This event was inevitable, there was no way to stop it, Burnett feels horrible he couldn’t do anything else for the Cherokee but he knows he did everything he possibly could.

  11. Ryan C.

    Ryan C.
    Ms. Keeble
    Period 1

    In “A Soldier Recalls a Tear”, by John G. Burnett is a letter he wrote about his story with the natives suffering. It is depressing and important that this man knew the native Indians well and that he respects them. I’m very surprised that Burnett interacted with natives a lot in his childhood. I never knew there was a person like this back then. It is depressing how he has to watch the natives suffer as he made close connections with them because of the government. It is good to know someone out there respects the natives and tried to help them.

  12. Thomas T

    Thomas T
    Keeble
    Ap English
    Period 1

    In “A Soldier Recalls the Trail of Tears”, John G Burnett accurately describes his active service during the infamous Trail of Tears. It is heartbreaking to read about a man having to evict people he had grew up with. I cannot imagine the internal conflict John Burnett had probably gone through to force himself to remove the Cherokee from their homes. Having a personal connection to the Cherokee only to take them from their homes requires a tremendous amount of courage and I have the utmost respect for Burnett to carry out his active service against his own will.

  13. Canyon Riley

    Canyon Riley
    Ms. Keeble
    AP English 11
    19 February 2013
    John G. Burnett’s tragic story, ”A Soldier Recalls the Trail of Tears”, depicts a time in American history that will live down in infamy forever. Burnett tells the readers about this story on his birthday because like his birthday, it is something he cannot forget. It’s terrible knowing the strong relationship Burnett had with the Cherokee Indians and witnessed the first-hand accounts of brutal slaughtering. At his young age, I can understand his frustration toward the American Army and Government for their heartless attitude for Cherokees, but he could not do much or else his punishment would prevent him from helping the Indians embarking on the Trail of Tears. Although the story saddens me, I admire him for fascination of the Cherokee culture and the risks he took to alleviate their sufferings.

  14. Valeria Diaz

    Valeria Diaz
    Ms. Keeble
    AP English
    19 February 2013
    In the story “A Soldier Recalls the Trail of Tears,” by John G. Burnett it gave me a reality check that even trageties can occur on a special day like a birthday. Events full of violence always tend to happen when it is least un expected and it sometimes puts down peoples lives. It is such a sad thing that Burnett had to experience death on the day he came to life. He had to see people frezze or get shot to death and it cause him a traumatic memory that no one deserves to remember. The fact that he had to witness a lot of sorrow on his birthday was a sad story to read.

  15. Niauni

    Niauni Hill
    Ms. Keeble
    AP English, Period 1
    19 February 2013

    After reading the lengthy “A Soldier Recalls the Trail of Tears” not only did I feel sympathy towards John G. Burnett, but I also recalled a couple of events in our world that relate to some of things John G. Burnett had to witness.

    I felt sympathy for John G. Burnett, because I understand all of the things he is going through. I may not have witnessed deaths on my birthday, but I have witnessed no smiling faces. To see people not happy when you are is a debby downer and it brings your mood down.

    Not only did John G. Burnett witness physical altercations, emotional hardships, and pain but also these things were witnessed on his birthday. On your birthday you typically think of bright lights, high energy and smiling faces, but that was not the case what’s so ever.

  16. Alicia Gonzales

    Alicia Gonzales
    Ms. Keeble
    AP English 11
    19 February 2013
    After reading the long essay “A Soldier Recalls the Trail of Tears,” I felt somewhat bad for John G. Burnett, because it is unfortunate that he had to see things such as death, and physical and emotional pain, especially not to mention on his birthday. This essay just caused me to make connections about other brutal things that have happened in our history.
    This is definitley not the only event that took place in our world. Other events that have occured are tragic things such as the Crucifiction of Christ, the Holocaust, and many more.
    The fact that the narrator aw tragic events of murdering taking place on his birthday, it reminded me of all the other things that have happened. And that is the personal response I get from reading this essay.

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